The oil industry deals with the industrial chain of oil and natural gas, from the deposit to the consumer. From the exploration to the exploitation concession, several operations are conducted. To do this, we will just skin two activities which are :
Crude oil refining
Refining consists in processing and transforming crude oil to obtain different products. In fact, oil refining with royal dutch shell stock allows to obtain many derivative products, after a series of treatments and transformations operated within the refineries.
Remember that oil in its pure form is not usable. It needs to be separated in order to be exploited. This being said, refining is an industrial process whose objective is to transform "crude" oil into fuel and heating oil. Indeed, oil refining is carried out in several stages: distillation, upgrading, conversion and manufacture of finished products. However, refining today is no longer limited to the separation of different hydrocarbons. Complex chemical processes are also used to optimize the final products.
The elaboration of petrochemical products
The petrochemical industry is now the most important foreign exchange earner, as its revenues increase as the economy recovers. Therefore, petrochemistry is the science that deals with the use of basic chemical compounds derived from petroleum to manufacture other synthetic compounds. In this sense, by passing the intermediate products obtained by distillation, materials are transformed into products that do not yet exist in nature.
In general, the petrochemical industry provides intermediate materials that serve as the basis for the manufacture of many everyday objects such as: plastics, textile fibers, adhesives, detergents, food packaging, pipes, and bottles. To summarize, the production of petrochemicals is based mainly on two types of processes: steam cracking and extraction processes.
The quality requirements for the finished products are increasingly high. Thus, economic pressures are pushing for maximum value from each barrel at a lower energy cost. However, the oil industry is forced to adapt regularly to environmental standards.